Northwest Lichenologists

Example Questions

(Closed-book; explain or qualify your answers if necessary. The focus is on rare or listed species not likely to be encountered in the field portion of the exam. Typically about 10% of the points relate ethical matters (see at bottom.)

1. Which of the following species are so far known in the Pacific Northwest only from the immediate coast?

_____ Bryoria spiralifera
_____ Lobaria linita
_____ Stereocaulon spathuliferum
_____ Tholurna dissimilis

2. List several characters that you would look for, that in combination differentiate Nephroma occultum from other PNW lichens that are similar in outward appearance.

3. Which one or more of the following species are likely to be found on rock?

_____ Usnea sphacelata
_____ Lobaria linita
_____ Sulcaria badia

4. Classify the habitat of following species wet, oceanic habitats (O), mesic montane habitats (M), and foothills and valleys (F). Assign your ratings based on the range of habitats available on the west side of the Cascade crest.

_____ Bryoria spiralifera
_____ Bryoria tortuosa
_____ Leioderma sorediatum
_____ Lobaria hallii
_____ Hypotrachyna revoluta
_____ Hypotrachyna riparia
_____ Usnea hesperina
_____ Teloschistes flavicans

5. How can "Dendriscocaulon" be distinguished from Polychidium contortum? Give at least two characters.

6. You are a Hypogymnia enthusiast and need to collect specimens of some species.
List one area for each of the species listed below where could you collect with the least effect on the population. Include the state or province and then a more specific area.

H. duplicata

H. heterophylla

H. oceanica

Examples of questions involving Code of Ethics...

7. Suggest a reasonable, reliable means of documenting observations of the following species, when a very small population is found.

a. Sulcaria badia

b. Teloschistes flavicans

8. You are on a contract with a government agency to survey a timber sale only for listed species X. You do not find X, but in the process you find listed species Y.

a. Should you and if so how should you report this to the contracting agencies and environmental groups?


b. If the contracting agency instructs you to tell the environmental groups that species Y wasn’t there, are you obliged to do so?


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